Healthcare Care Standards and its artifacts.
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Healthcare Care Standards and its artifacts.

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There are so many standard in Health care and it makes the health care operational environment too much complicated. Now we need standard of a standard. Apparently, it is not easy to come up with a one unique standard for everyone. The most dominant health care standards are : HL7, Snomed CT, ICD-10, DICOM, EDIFACT, EN/ISO 13606,openEHR etc. Mainly HL7, EN/ISO 13606 and openEHR for standardised EHR.. Health Level 7 is the globally leading healthcare interoperability standard, founded in 1987, it comprehensively covers all areas of clinical information exchange. It is a US based Standard. The question is why we really need so many standards. The main reason is: people from different countries with completely different language and culture and they are only able to communicate with each other if they can speak a common language, computer applications can only share information if they communicate with a common standard. To communicate with both people and computers we need common standard. In addition, we need to reuse the information and need to handle huge amount of communication between applications. Functional interoperability and semantic interoperability are two main features of the standard. A frequent misconception about HL7 is that it develops software. HL7 develops specifications, the most widely known being a messaging standard that enables disparate healthcare applications to exchange clinical and administrative data. SNOMED CT means Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine — Clinical Terms. It is a systematically organized computer processable collection of medical terminology covering most areas of clinical information such as disorder, findings, procedures, micro organisms, pharmaceuticals, substances, and situation. Here, every disease is seen as a disorder. So, patients record or clinical data can be represented unambiguous way with the help of SNOMED CT. Different type of medical terminology used in place to place, so unified medical terminology system is needed as part of the standard information infrastructure.
SNOMED CT consists of over a million medical Concepts. For example: 240220009 means spinal instability. The Concepts are arranged in a type or IS-A hierarchy. For example, viral pneumonia IS-A Infectious pneumonia IS-A Pneumonia IS-A Lung disease. Another standard ICD-10 proposed and developed by WHO. The ICD is the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological, many health management purposes and clinical use. These include the analysis of the general health situation of population groups and monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of diseases and other health problems in relation to other variables such as the characteristics and circumstances of the individuals affected, reimbursement, resource allocation, quality and guidelines (WHO).
Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. It includes a file format definition and a network communications protocol. The communication protocol is an application protocol that uses TCP/IP to communicate between systems. The benefits of standard are safe, secure and reliable information exchange and right information at the right time in the right way. It also ensure the appropriate and un-ambiguity and clarity of the information. Finally, to get the holistic benefit, it must be co-ordinated.
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